Relationship with Peers
Children first begin to show some positive interest in other infants as early as 6 months of age. If you place two babies of that age on the floor facing each other, they will touch each other, pull each other’s hair, and reach for each other’s clothing. In 10-month-olds, these behaviours are even more evident.
By 14 to 18 months of age, two or more children can play together with toys, occasionally cooperating, but more often simply playing side by side with different toys, a pattern described as parallel play. By 3 or 4 years, children appear to prefer to play with peers rather than alone, and their play with one another is much more cooperative and coordinated, including various forms of group play. By age 3 or 4, more than half of children have at least one mutual friend.
There is every reason to believe that early play with a peer is highly important to learn and practice a host of social skills. Often, they have to learn to subdue their own desires in the interests of joint play, which requires some awareness of the other’s feelings and wishes as well as an ability to modulate one’s own emotions. Play with peers, especially play with friends, maybe a crucial ingredient in the individual’s psychosocial development.
Peers become even more important among school-aged children. Indeed, for children aged 7 through 10, playing with peers takes up virtually all their time when they are not in school, eating, or sleeping. Shared play interests form the major basis of peer relationships among school-aged children. Furthermore, children in this age range define playgroups in terms of common activities.
The sense of being male or female has effects on psychosocial development throughout life. It produces dissimilar worlds for members of each sex, even during infancy!
Infants’ behaviour is interpreted differently depending on gender. Male infants are considered to be more active and fussier than females. Also, it is well known that there are typical gender-related roles that one has to play in life depending on
whether one is a male or female. This can be seen in children’s play, where boys are encouraged to play more vigorous games while girls are expected to play more docile and soft games. Depending upon the role a male or female is expected
to take up in society, the play also is influenced by these factors.
Also, girls and boys between the ages of 6 and 12 actively avoid interacting with one another and show strong favouritism toward their own gender and negative stereotyping of the opposite gender. Why is this preference for same-gender playmates so very strong at this age? Eleanor Maccoby (1990), one of the leading researchers and theorists in this area, suggests two reasons.
- Girls appear to be “put off” by the typical boy’s rough-and-tumble play style and by the strong emphasis on competition and dominance that is so much a part of boy-boy interactions.
- Also, girls find it hard to influence boys.
- Girls make polite suggestions to each other, a style of influence attempt that school-aged boys simply do not comply with very often.
- Girls tend to withdraw into their own pairs or groups where their own “rules” of behaviour are familiar and effective. Indeed, boys’ preference for same-gender playmates is, even stronger than that of girls.
Furthermore, gender segregation is even more pronounced in friendships among school-aged children. School-aged children spend more time with their friends than do preschoolers, and they gradually develop a larger collection of reciprocal
friendships and pairs in which each child names the other as a friend or as a “best friend”.This number gradually rises through elementary school.
Also the qualities of the friendships girls and boys create differ. Boys’ relationships are extensive while that of girls are intensive. Boys’ friendship groups are larger and more accepting of newcomers than are girls’. Boyfriends play more outdoors and roam over a larger area in their play. Girlfriends are more likely to play in pairs or in smaller groups, and they spend more playtime indoors or near home or school.
Gender differences in actual interactions are also evident. Boys’ groups and boys’ friendships appear to be focused more on competition and dominance than are girls’ friendships (Maccoby, 1990). In fact, among school-aged boys, there are higher levels of competition between pairs of friends than between pairs of strangers, the opposite of what can be observed among girls. Friendships between girls also include more agreement, more compliance, and more self-disclosure than those between boys.
Rivalry or jealousy is the key ingredient of sibling relationships. Certainly, the birth of a new brother or sister radically changes the life of the older sibling. The parents have less time for the older child, who may feel neglected and angry. Such feelings may lead both to more confrontations between the older child and the parents and to feelings of rivalry with the new one.
Young brothers and sisters hit each other, snatch toys, and threaten and insult each other. The older child in a pair of preschoolers is likely to be the leader and is therefore likely to show more of both aggressive and helpful behaviours.
Play in young children contributes to all domains of development. Through play, children stimulate the senses, learn how to use their muscles, coordinate sight with movement, gain mastery over their bodies, and acquire new skills. As they sort blocks of different shapes, count how many they can pile on each other, or announce that “my tower is bigger than yours,” they lay the foundation for mathematical concepts. Researchers categorise children’s play by its content and its social dimension.
Types of Play: There are three types of play, viz., (i) Make-believe or Pretend play (ii) Functional play (iii) Constructive play
Nitu at 3, arranged for the marriage of her doll. Nitin at 4, wore a kitchen towel and flew around as Batman. These children were engaged in ‘make believe’ play involving situations. They develop problem-solving and language skills and experience the joy of creativity. They make “tickets” for an imaginary train trip or use a doctor set to play doctor-patient. The make-believe play is one of four categories of play identified by Piaget and others as showing increasing levels of cognitive complexity (Piaget, 1951). In pretend play, children do the following:
- Try out roles
- Cope with uncomfortable emotions
- Gain understanding of other people’s viewpoints, and
- Construct an image of the social world.
Pretend play is also called fantasy play, dramatic play or imaginative play.
Functional play involves repetitive muscular movements such as rolling or bouncing a ball. As gross motor skills improve, preschoolers run, jump, skip, hop, throw, and aim.
Constructive play is one in which the child uses objects or materials to make something, such as a house of blocks or a crayon drawing. Four-year-olds in preschools may spend more than half their time in this kind of play, which becomes more elaborate by ages 5 and 6 years.
The Social Dimension of play
As children get older, their play tends to become more social than it is more interactive and cooperative. At first, children play alone, then alongside other children, and finally, together.
Children become more social during the preschool years in imaginative play, which shifts from solitary pretending to dramatic play involving other children. Young children follow unspoken rules in organising dramatic play, i.e. I’m the daddy; you’re the mommy. As imaginative play becomes increasingly collaborative, storylines become more complex and more innovative. The dramatic play offers rich opportunities to practice interpersonal and language skills and to explore social roles.
Pro Social Behaviour and Aggression
We will consider here two specific categories of behaviour, pro-social behaviour and aggression. Prosocial behaviour is defined as “intentional, voluntary behaviour intended to benefit another”. Variations in children’s levels of prosocial behaviour seem to be related to specific kinds of child-rearing practices. Children do support and share with one another, and they also tease, fight, criticise, and argue over objects and territory.
However, there is another side to this behaviour, which is aggression that has been studied in greater detail by researchers. Every child
shows some aggression, but the form and frequency of aggression are not the same throughout but tend to vary considerably from age to age. When a child is only 2 or 3 years of age, they may show their anger through temper tantrums, by throwing things down and destroying or breaking their toys.
Since this kind of aggression has a specific goal as for example making the mother give chocolate or purchase a toy from the market, this type of aggression is known as instrumental aggression. Once the goal is achieved, the aggression disappears only to return when another goal has to be achieved. This is where the caregivers and parents have to be extra cautious not to allow such aggression to become a pattern of behaviour that may be rather too difficult to control at later ages.
This is the pattern of arousal and emotionality that are labeled as consistent and enduring characteristics of an individual. Temperament refers to how children behave. Temperamental differences among infants appear from the time of birth.
Temperament shows stability from infancy through adolescence.
Research shows three profiles of temperament, viz., (i) easy babies (ii) difficult babies and (iii) slow to warm up babies.
Easy babies have a positive disposition, their body functions operate regularly and they are adaptable, while difficult babies have negative moods and are slow to adapt to new situations.
The third category that is the slow to warm up babies are inactive, showing relatively calm reactions to their environment. Their moods are generally negative, and they withdraw from new situations, adapting slowly.
No temperament is inherently good or bad and in most cases there is a combination of all these temperaments though one is more dominant than others. How well a person adjusts to the environment depends on the degree of match between
children’s temperament and the nature and demands of the environment in which they are being raised.
Child Rearing Practices
Child rearing practices are parenting practices which are the mechanisms through which parents directly help their children attain socialisation goals. A child’s mind is considered to be fresh and tender so that it can be moulded to suit the society and the family.
Child rearing is a process. It involves planning, formulating, and implementing a programme of bringing up children in a certain way that is in line with the requirement of the family and society. In this process the child learns the moral values, ethical issues, expectations from the child by the family and society, and a set of patterns of behaviour which are essential for the proper growth and development of the child that would contribute positively to the family and the society.
This process involves inculcating in children certain values, attitudes, opinions and beliefs through direct teaching, modeling, and imitation. These acquired patterns of behaviour are reinforced by the parents by praise and reward and where the child learns wrong patterns of behaviour, the same is punished. Thus through the process of rewards and punishment the child rearing practices inculcate in children the required appropriate behaviours and conduct that are in line with the social norms and family norms.
Competent parenting has been found to be related to a warmer, more accepting, and more helpful styles of parenting. Competent parenting is competence-inducing in that it is characterised by sensitivity to children’s capabilities, developmental
milestones and recognises the child’s need for control and individuality and views the rights and duties of parents and children as complementary.
27 thoughts on “7 FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT”
This website truly has all of the information I wanted about this subject and didn’t know who to ask.
It’s impressive that you are getting thoughts from this piece of writing as well as from our dialogue made here.
Every weekend i used to pay a visit this website, because i wish for enjoyment, since this this web page conations
in fact good funny stuff too.
Good post! We are linking to this particularly great post on our website.
Keep up the good writing.
Unquestionably believe that which you said.
Your favorite reason appeared to be on the internet the easiest thing to be aware
of. I say to you, I certainly get irked while people consider worries that they just
don’t know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the top as well as
defined out the whole thing without having side effect ,
people can take a signal. Will likely be back to get more.
I think what you published was actually very logical.
However, what about this? what if you added a little information? I
am not suggesting your information is not good., but suppose you added a title to possibly
grab people’s attention? I mean 7 FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT – PsychoSeri is a little vanilla.
You could peek at Yahoo’s home page and see how they create article titles to get people
to open the links. You might try adding a video or a pic or two to
get people interested about what you’ve written. Just my opinion, it would make your posts a
Thank you for your suggestion.
I constantly emailed this weblog post page to all my contacts, as
if like to read it after that my links will too.
Thank you so much for your support:)
I’m really loving the theme/design of your blog.
Do you ever run into any browser compatibility problems?
A handful of my blog readers have complained about my site not operating correctly
in Explorer but looks great in Safari. Do you have any
suggestions to help fix this issue?
Howdy this is somewhat of off topic but I was wanting to know if
blogs use WYSIWYG editors or if you have to manually code with HTML.
I’m starting a blog soon but have no coding knowledge so
I wanted to get advice from someone with
experience. Any help would be greatly appreciated!
Hi there, just became aware of your blog through
Google, and found that it is truly informative. I am gonna watch out
for brussels. I’ll appreciate if you continue this in future.
Many people will be benefited from your writing.
Interesting blog! Is your theme custom made or did
you download it from somewhere? A theme like yours with
a few simple tweeks would really make my blog stand out. Please let me know where you
got your theme. Appreciate it
Quality articles is the main to attract the viewers to pay
a quick visit the site, that’s what this website is providing.
Just desire to say your article is as astounding.
The clarity to your submit is simply cool and that i can think you are a
professional in this subject. Fine with your permission allow me
to grasp your RSS feed to stay up to date with approaching post.
Thanks 1,000,000 and please keep up the gratifying work.
Hello there! This blog post couldn’t be written any better!
Looking at this post reminds me of my previous
roommate! He always kept talking about this. I am going to
forward this information to him. Fairly
certain he will have a very good read. Thank you for sharing!
Great post. I used to be checking constantly this weblog and I’m impressed!
Very useful info particularly the ultimate part 🙂 I deal
with such info a lot. I used to be seeking this particular information for a long
time. Thank you and good luck.
The other day, while I was at work, my cousin stole my iphone and tested to see if it can survive a thirty foot drop,
just so she can be a youtube sensation. My iPad is now destroyed and she has 83 views.
I know this is entirely off topic but I had to share it with
Hello! I simply want to give you a huge thumbs
up for the great info you have here on this post. I will
be returning to your blog for more soon.
This design is wicked! You definitely know how to keep a reader entertained.
Between your wit and your videos, I was almost moved to start my own blog (well, almost…HaHa!)
Great job. I really enjoyed what you had to say, and more than that, how you presented it.
Hi would you mind stating which blog platform you’re using?
I’m going to start my own blog in the near future but I’m having a tough time choosing
between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and Drupal.
The reason I ask is because your design seems different then most blogs and I’m looking for
something completely unique. P.S My apologies for being off-topic but I had to ask!
I’m suing WordPress now.
I really like reading a post that will make men and women think.
Also, thank you for allowing for me to comment!
Hello There. I found your blog using msn. This is an extremely well written article.
I will make sure to bookmark it and come back to read more of your useful
info. Thanks for the post. I’ll definitely return.
I think what you typed made a ton of sense. But, what
about this? what if you were to write a killer title?
I ain’t suggesting your information is not good, however suppose you added a post title to possibly grab a
person’s attention? I mean 7 FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT – PsychoSeri is a little plain.
You might look at Yahoo’s front page and note how they write article headlines to
get viewers to click. You might try adding a
video or a related picture or two to get readers interested about what you’ve written. Just my opinion, it
could bring your posts a little bit more interesting.
Hello, Neat post. There is a problem with your site in internet explorer, could test this?
IE still is the marketplace leader and a huge component to folks
will miss your fantastic writing because of this problem.
Asking questions are truly pleasant thing if you are
not understanding anything entirely, but this article offers good understanding even.