Environmental Factors Influencing Personality

Personality is not solely determined by genetic characteristics. Heredity provides only the blueprint in terms of chromosomes and genes. However, the ability to operate on that gene is largely dependent on the presence of a suitable environment. For example, a person may have mathematical ability but this ability cannot be refined unless that person is provided … Read more

Dimensions of Personality

Let me ask you a question. How many people have you met since you were a child? Thousands would be a reasonable answer. Another question is how many of these folks have personality traits in common? In terms of personality, a realistic answer is that none of them was comparable or identical. They may have … Read more

Definitions Of Personality

According to Allport (1961) personality is the “dynamic organisation within the individual of those psycho-physical systems that determine his unique adjustment to his environment”. It suggests that a person’s personality “resides” within him or her and that these systems are intertwined into an organisation.Personality is dynamic rather than static, and the organisational pattern affects the … Read more

General Adaptation Syndrome (G.A.S.)

OVERVIEW Stress is really prevalent. While you may not be able to eliminate all stressors from your life, you can manage stress and keep yourself healthy. Stress can create mental exhaustion, irritation, and insomnia, thus this is crucial. Even if you are aware of the physical impacts of stress, you may not be aware of … Read more

Symptoms Of Anxiety

What Is Anxiety? We’ve all experienced anxiety from time to time. When we are about to take exams, or facing a job interview, or awaiting the results of some important medical tests, we feel worried about what might happen. We are tense and anxious about how we will be affected. But exactly what does anxiety … Read more


Self-esteem is the experience of being competent to cope with the basic challenges of life and of being worthy of happiness. Self-esteem is the one important factor required by anybody to succeed in life. It is said that if an individual build their self-esteem at their adolescent period it lasts all through their life. Self-esteem … Read more

Physical Changes In Male & Female

Puberty is the period during which growing boys or girls undergo the process of sexual maturation. Puberty involves a series of physical stages or steps that lead to the achievement of fertility and the development of the so-called secondary sex characteristics, the physical features associated with adult males and females. While puberty involves a series … Read more

All The Sigmund Freud’s Theories

The proponent of this theory is Sigmund Freud, who believed that human behaviour is brought about by inner forces over which the individual has little control. He was of the view that both conscious and unconscious forces influence the personality of an individual. The Structure of Personality Freud likens that the human mind to an … Read more


Though many scientists and researchers have approached the study of child development over the last hundred or so years, only a few of the theories have been influential and these are: Freud’s psychosexual stage theory Erikson’s psychosocial stage theory Kohlberg’s moral understanding stage theory Piaget’s cognitive development stage theory Bronfenbrenner’s ecological system theory Freud’s psychosexual … Read more


To understand the pattern of development, certain fundamental facts must be taken into consideration. Each of these has important implications and is explained as follows: Early foundations are critical Early foundations are critical because attitudes, habits and pattern of behaviour established during early years determine to a large extent how successfully individuals will adjust in … Read more


The life span perspective argues that significant modifications take place throughout development. It consists of the development of humans in multidimensional, multidirectional, plastic, multidisciplinary, and contextual factors. The development involves growth, maintenance and regulation. Changes that occur are interpreted in terms of the requirements of the culture and context of the occurrences. According to Paul … Read more


Definition of Life Span Development We can define life span development as “The pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through the life cycle.” Lifespan development can also be defined as a methodical, intra-individual change associated with progressions corresponding to age. The development progresses in a manner implicating the level of functioning. Life-span … Read more


We can define life span development as “The pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through the life cycle.” Lifespan development can also be defined as a methodical, intra-individual change associated with progressions corresponding to age. The development progresses in a manner implicating the level of functioning. Development describes the growth of humans … Read more


Relationship with Peers Children first begin to show some positive interest in other infants as early as 6 months of age. If you place two babies of that age on the floor facing each other, they will touch each other, pull each other’s hair, and reach for each other’s clothing. In 10-month-olds, these behaviours are … Read more


E.H. Weber, a German psychologist, proposed the measure of JND (Just Noticeable Difference) within the year 1934. Weber gave the observation that the dimensions of the differential threshold are proportional to the intensity of the quality stimulus. This ratio is constant. The size of the differential threshold, a continuing ratio of the quality stimulus, is … Read more


All sciences have broadly, two branches. One, the basic or academic branch and the other applied. The basic or academic branch is the result of an academic curiosity or a question e.g. Newton asked: “Why does the apple fall on the ground?” which gave rise to the theory of ‘gravity’. On the other hand, the … Read more


You have so far come to know that area of psychophysics concerns the relationship between stimulus intensity and sensory magnitude. Fechner, extending Weber’s law believed that a general equation, with the logarithmic relationship, does exist that holds good for all senses. What Weber Says Weber’s law tells us that each just noticeable stimulus increment is … Read more

Short Term Memory

In our normal life, we require much more than sensory register gives us in case of memory. Some memory holds information for fairly short intervals – say up to a minute and this is known as short term memory. It is also known as “Primary” or “Active memory”. Capacity The storage capacity of the STM … Read more


Gustav T. Fechner (1801–1887), professor of physics at the University of Leipzig, sought to measure the mind quantitatively. In approaching this task he studied stimuli and the sensations they aroused. His interest was in ascertaining how sensations changed with changing stimulation. While lying in bed on the morning of October 22, 1850, he conceived the … Read more

Nature And 9 General Characteristics of Behaviour

According to psychologists, behaviour is everything or anything that a human being or animal does that can be observed in some way. In other words, behaviour includes all actions and responses of organisms that can be measured directly or indirectly. Behaviour not only means bodily movements but also can include mental and cognitive processes such … Read more

Eysenck’s Trait Theory

Hans J Eysenck is somewhat difficult to identify or classify as to whether he is a learning theorist or behaviourist. He supports a model of personality characterised by types and traits because he firmly believes that the most fundamental personalitycharacteristics are inherited. His equally strong belief that both heredity and environment determine behaviour supports his … Read more

The Proprium

Allport clarified that personality is not a bundle of unrelated traits but they are traits in a personality that have between them consistency, unity and integration. This implies that personality has a clear organisation and structure and also is governed by certain important principles. This entire organisation was called by Allport the Proprium. Let us … Read more

Allport’s Trait Theory

Gordon Allport was one of the first modern trait theorists. Allport and Henry Odbert worked through two of the most comprehensive dictionaries of the English language available and extracted around 18,000 personality-describing words. From this list, they reduced the number of words to approximately 4,500 personality-describing adjectives which they considered to describe observable and relatively … Read more

The Id, the Ego and the Superego

According to Freud’s Psychodynamic theory, personality development goes through various stages and is completed by the time the individual is five years of age. The personality that the individual will have at this time is the one he will carry throughout life. Furthermore more, Sigmund Freud introduced the concept of Id, Ego and Superego whose … Read more

Observational Methods

The observational method involves the observation and recording of the activities of a person by the observer in a controlled or natural situation. These recordings are then analyzed and inference about the personality of the individual is drawn. Observational methods are categorized under two headings: (i) Rating scales and (ii) Interviews. These are being elaborated … Read more

Projective Methods

These methods are based on the principle of projection ( a defence mechanism ) in which a person projects his or her own desire, needs and feelings onto other person or object. To give an example, Suppose you hate a person but you can not say this to that person as he is powerful and … Read more

Personality Inventories

The need for personality inventories was first felt during the First World War when the scrutiny of emotionally unstable soldiers had to be done. This is the most popular method of personality assessment. In this method statements about certain traits of personality are constructed and the testee is required to answer them as ”right/wrong” or … Read more

Personality Assessment

Assessment of personality refers to the measurement of personal characteristics of an individual. It involves information gathering through interviews etc. and administering of psychological test to understand the typical characteristics. Assessment is a result of gathering information. It contributes to the furthering of research in the area and also helps in making appropriate decisions regarding … Read more

Non-experimental Methods

Although experiments are the best way of determining cause and effect, there are many circumstances where they are practically not feasible. If we are interested to know how gender, ethnicity or age affects behaviour, we cannot assign participants to different conditions of the as experimental method. Moreover, when social psychologists are interested to study psychological … Read more

Experimental Methods

An experiment involves manipulating one variable – which we call the Independent Variable and then seeing whether this affects a second variable, which we refer to as the Dependent Variable. To explain this, we describe an experiment conducted by Scheier and Carver (1977) in which the independent variable ‘self-awareness’ was manipulated by having participants either … Read more

Basic Channels of Non-verbal Communication

It is interesting to note that non-verbal communication or body language accounts for more than 70% of our communication while words account for just about 10%. Thus, non-verbal communication is very important in human interaction. All of us are aware that we act differently when we are happy or sad. People tend to behave differently … Read more

Criteria Of Judging A Personality Theory

There are the following criteria for judging the Personality Theory: Verifiability  A theory is positively evaluated to the degree that its concepts lend themselves to verification by stated in such a way that its concepts are clearly, explicitly defined and logically related to one another so that the theory can be empirically tested. This requirement … Read more

Characteristic Features Of Personality

The term personality is often understood to be one who impresses other people and who has not the ability is said to have relatively poor personality. However, if one considers personality form a scientific point of view, being attractive to others is not a true concept of personality. There are following characteristic features of personality, … Read more

Jung’s contribution to Psychodynamic Psychology

Carl Jung, a Swiss psychiatrist, was a great follower of Sigmund Freud. He read spiritedly the writings of Freud and also wrote himself about many issues relating to the psychodynamics. Though he was a follower of Sigmund Freud and also worked with him on Freud’s theory, but in later years, his writings considerably differed from … Read more

Theory Of Abraham Maslow

Abraham Maslow developed the Hierarchy of Needs model in the 1940-50s in the USA, and the Hierarchy of Needs theory remains valid even today for understanding human motivation, management training, and personal development. Indeed, Maslow’s ideas surrounding the Hierarchy of Needs concerning the responsibility of employers to provide a workplace environment that encourages and enables … Read more

Defense Mechanisms

Freud believed that the id, the ego, and the superego are in constant conflict. He focused mainly on conflicts concerning sexual and aggressive urges because these urges are most likely to violate societal rules. Internal conflicts can make a person feel anxious. In Freud’s view, anxiety arises when the ego cannot adequately balance the demands … Read more